Important dates vis-a-vis other developments in the region
Early 17th Century: Initial militarization of Sikhs under Guru Har Gobind, the 6th Guru of Sikhs who opposed the Mogul emperor Jahangir
1655 – 1680: Marathas oppose Moguls in South and Central India; and Shiva Ji died in 1680
1675 – 1708: An era of Guru Gobind Singh Ji (1666 – 1708) wherein he kept opposing the Mogul rulers
1708 – 1716: Sikhs fight the Moguls persecution under the able leadership of Banda Singh Bahadur
1715: Hardas, grand father of Jassa Singh Ramgarhia died fighting under the leadership of Banda Singh Bahadur in the battle of Bajwara in Hoshiarpur in 1715.
1716: Death of Banda Singh Bahadur
1787: Bhagwan Singh, son of Hardas Singh and of father of Jassa Singh, died. He was baptized by Banda Singh Bahadur
1716 – 1745: Being leaderless, Sikhs fell apart, operated in a disorganized manner; and were in the process of forming Sikh Misls
1723: Jassa Singh Ichogill (later became popular as Ramgarhia and built the famous fort of Ramgarh) was born to Bhagwan Singh.
1745 – 1758: Ramgarhia Misl was formed and operated under Nand Singh and Khushal Singh, however it earned its name under Jassa Singh
1758 – 1803: Ramgarhia Misl became one of the most potent Misls under Jassa Singh and raided Red Fort, Delhi. Captured areas of Jassa Singh are given below.
1803: Death of Jassa Singh due to fever.
1803: British annex Delhi – Agra region from Maratha rulers on 30 Dec 1803
1803 – 1816: Jodh Singh, son of Jassa Singh, succeeded Jassa Singh in 1803 and lead the Misl. Maharaja Ranjit Singh tried to annex the Misl but having failed to do so, made Jodh Singh as his ally.
1816: Jodh Singh died and the Misl was annexed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh due to dynastic feud
1817 – 1818: British after winning third Anglo-Maratha war, controlled entire India South of River Sutlej, Punjab. Initial Anglo-Maratha wars however commenced around 1772
1801 – 1839: Consolidation of Sikh Misls under Maharaja Ranjit Singh; and an era of Sikh empire. Sikhs expand their empire to include parts of Kashmir and Afghanistan. Ramgarhia and Kenheya Misls were annexed during 1816 and 1820 respectively
1819 – 1846: Sikhs rule in Kashmir
1819 / 1820 – 1834: Diwan Singh, nephew of Jassa Singh, took Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s forces to Barmulla, Kashmir in 1820 and held positions for 14 years until he died in 1834.
1837: Ranjit Singh’s army under Hari Singh Nalwa expanded towards Peshawar – Kabul. Mangal Singh, son of Diwan Singh, fought the famous battle of Jamraud with Hari Singh Nalwa. Portion of annexed Ramgarhia estate was returned to Mangal Singh by Ranjit Singh after Mangal Singh’s achievements in Afghanistan.
1839: Death of Ranjit Singh
1839 – 1849: After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Kharak Singh (1839); and later Sher Singh (1841) and Duleep Singh succeeded the Sikh empire in 1843. Kharak Singh died on 5 Nov 1840, due to poison, allegedly administered under the orders of his son Nau Nihal Singh and Raja Dhayan Singh. And whereas Sher Singh was assassinated on 15 September 1843 by his cousin, Ajit Singh Sandhawalia
1845 – 1846: First Anglo-Sikh war wherein Sikhs were made to cede some valuable territory in Jullunder Doab to East India Company.
1846: After the First Anglo-Sikh war, Maharaja Gulab Singh, the ruler of Jammu, was allowed to acquire Kashmir from the Sikh kingdom by a large cash payment to the East India Company.
1849: The Sikh empire collapsed after their defeat in the second Anglo-Sikh war in 1849. The commencement of British Raj in the erstwhile areas of Sikh empire.
1857: The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of Sepoy of the British East India Company’s army on 10 May 1857 at Meerut, and soon erupted into other areas with the major hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, northern Madhya Pradesh , and in the region of Delhi.